Cornell University

John Bishop : Vita




John H. Bishop

Department of Human Resource Studies


New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations  327 The Parkway
390 Ives Hall                                                                                                                          Ithaca, New York 14850
Cornell University                                                                                                                  (607) 257-1402
Ithaca, New York 14851-0952                                                                                             E mail:
(607) 255-2742  


Education:  Ph.D.   University of Michigan 1974

            M.S.    University of Michigan 1967

            B.A.    Oberlin College, Magna Cum Laude, 1962


Director of Educational Excellence Alliance, a consortium of 400 striving high schools in New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina and other states that are interested in learning how to more effectively help all their students to achieve at higher levels and to respect individual differences.  The Alliance offers its members a convenient means of assessing and diagnosing their student peer cultures in a way that allows them to compare themselves to other similar schools and to track changes over time.   During the 1998-99 school year, 134 schools undertook a standardized assessment of the culture of their 10th graders and were sent reports comparing their students to students at comparable schools.  Another 200 schools did a revised assessment during the 2000-01 school year. The reports point out areas of concern and suggested reading materials that were helpful in planning interventions designed to build a student culture that honors academic achievement and respects individual differences. 

Chair of Department of Human Resource Studies, 6/95 to 6/98

Department of Human Resource Studies, New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University. 9/86 to present. 

Project Director for the School of Industrial and Labor Relations component of the new U.S. Department of Education funded Center on the Educational Quality of the Workforce, ($475,000 over two years). 

Director of the National Institute of Education funded Center for Research on Youth Employability between 7/81 and 8/86 ($850,000 yearly) and Director of the Research Division at the National Center for Research in Vocational Education.  In this capacity, I led a multi-disciplinary team of six Ph.D.'s and other Research Division staff in a study of the ways firms hire, train, and promote young and disadvantaged workers, the competencies that are required to get and keep jobs, and the effectiveness of different education and training institutions and of employer provided training in preparing youth to become productive workers.  Served as the principal investigator of the following:

An Impact Study of the Targeted Jobs Tax Credit Program which estimated a fixed effect model of the impact of TJTC in 5 years of longitudinal data on over one million individuals.  (Department of Labor and Macro Systems, $205,738, 8/84 - 2/86)

Training and Human Capital Formation, a study of the determinants and impact of on-the-job training which tests various elements of contract theory.  (Department of Labor, $87,865, 9/83 - 11/85)

Targeted Jobs Tax Credit:  Findings from Employer Surveys, a study of the reasons for the low utilization of TJTC by employers and of its impact on firms which hire TJTC eligibles.  (Department of Health and Human Services, $76,818, 9/83 - 9/84)

Recruiting Workers, a study of how employers recruit and select new employees and the impact of their recruitment strategies on the quality of the match between job and employer.  (National Commission on Employment Policy, $71,252, 10/82 - 8/83)

Subsidizing On-the Job Training, a study of the determinants of training, turnover and worker productivity and of participation in and the impact of TJTC based on the EOPP employer survey.  (Stanford Research International and ETA/Department of Labor, $207,328, 7/81 - 3/82)

Between 8/72 and 7/81 Institute for Research on Poverty at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.  Served as Associate Editor of the Journal of Human Resources, visiting lecturer in the Department of Economics and principal investigator of the following grants:

Evaluation of Labor Market Effects of the Employment Opportunity Pilot Projects:  Impacts on Private for Profit Employers which involved designing and analyzing a national survey of 5,500 employers.  (Stanford Research International and the Department of Labor, approximately $750,000, 4/79 - 7/81)

The Potential of Wage Subsidies, a study of how to design wage subsidies targeted on low skill workers.  (Employment and Training Administration, $215,000, 8/73 - 12/77)

An Empirical Estimation of the Impact of Alternative Post Secondary Education Policies.  (National Institute of Education, $65,000, 9/74 -8/76)

Between 9/68 - 6/72 taught in the Economics Department at New York University.   The courses taught were Intermediate Macroeconomics, Public Expenditure, The Economics of Poverty, and both Micro and Macro Principles of Economics.  Served as staff assistant to Alan Carter, the University's Chancellor in his capacity as chair of the Panel on Student Financial Need Analysis of the College Scholarship Service.

Between 9/62-8/64 served in the Peace Corps as a math, history, and English teacher at Sokoto Teacher Training College, Nigeria.


                                              Education and Work Force Preparedness

“Curriculum-Based External Exit Examinations: New Evidence on their Impacts”, forthcoming in the New England Journal of Economics.

“La educación secundaria en los Estados Unidos: ¿Qué pueden aprender otros de nuestros errores?”   with Ferran Mane and Michael Bishop) Alternativas de Reforma de la Educación Secondarie en America Latina y el Caribe. Edited by German Rama, (Washington, DC: InterAmerican Development Bank, 2002)

“Assessing the Impact of the Michigan Merit Award Program.”  forthcoming in Taking Account of Accountability  edited by Paul Peterson, The Brookings Institution Press.

“Why do we Harass Nerds and Freaks: Towards a Theory of Student Culture and Norms” (with Matthew Bishop, Lara Gelbwasser, Shanna Green, Andrew Zuckerman,)  forthcoming in   Brookings Papers on Education Policy, edited by Diane Ravitch, (Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 2002),

“School Choice and Diploma Exams,” forthcoming in Empirical Issues in Canadian Education, Patrice de Broucker and Arthur Sweetman eds. (McGill-Queen's University Press for the John Deutsch Institute at Queen's University)

“Raising the Stakes in New York: The Regents Exam System ” forthcoming in Education Next.

“How External Exit Exams Spur Achievement” (with Ferran Mane and Michael Bishop)  Educational Leadership , September 2001, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 58-63.

“The Impact of School-Employer Partnerships on Early Labor Market Success of Students” (with Ferran Mane), in "School-to-Work: Origins and Destinations.    Eds. William J. Stull and Nicholas M. Sanders   (Westport, CT, Praeger, 2002)

“The Impacts of Minimum Competency Exam Graduation Requirements on High School Graduation, College Attendance and Early Labor Market Success” (with Ferran Mane) Labour Economics    Vol. 8, nº2, Spring 2001, 203-222.

“Steeper, Better Road to Graduation.” Education Next.  Winter 2001, 56-61.

“STW in the 1990s: School-Employer Partnerships and Student Outcomes” (with Ferran Mane) CEIC Review, Philadelphia, PA: The Center for Research in Human Development and Education, Summer 2001.

“The Role of End-of-Course Exams and Minimum Competency Exams in Standards-Based Reforms.”   (with Ferran Mane, Michael Bishop and Joan Moriarty)  Brookings Papers on Education Policy, edited by Diane Ravitch, (Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 2001), 267-345.

“Diplomas for Learning: not Seat Time.” (with Joan Moriarty and Ferran Mane)  Economics of Education Review. Vol 19, No. 3, 2000.

“Higher Education’s JANUS: College Admissions in the 21st Century.”  In   S. Tobias (Ed.) Education in 2021. New York: College Board, 2000.

“Incentive Effects of New York’s Minimum Competency Exams” (with Ferran Mane), School Choice vs. Best Systems: What Improves Education  eds. Margaret Wong and Herbert Walberg,  (Mahwah, New Jersey, Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, 2001), 323-356 .

“Are National Exit Examinations Important for Economic Efficiency?”   Swedish Economic Policy Review  Vol. 6, #2, Fall 1999, 349-401.

“The Effect of Minimum Competency Exam Graduation Requirements on College Attendance and Early Labor Market Success of Disadvantaged Students.” (with Ferran Mane), Raising Standards or Raising Barriers, edited by Gary Orfield and Mindy Kornhaber, (New York: The Century Foundation  Press), 51-83.

“Privatizing Education: Lessons from Canada, Asia and Europe”  Vouchers and the Provision of Public Services, ed.  by Eugene Steurele, Van Doorn Ooms, George Peterson, and Robert D. Reischauer,   (Washington, DC: The Urban Institute and Brookings Institution, 2000), 292-335.

“Curriculum Based Exit Examinations: Do Students Learn More? How?”   Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, Vol. 6, no. 1, March  2000,.199-215.

"Nerd Harassment, Incentives, School Priorities and Learning."  Earning and Learning: How Schools Matter, eds Susan Mayer and Paul Peterson, (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999) 231-80

“Using High Stakes to Raise Achievement.” Students Continually Learning. (Washington, DC, Council of Chief State School Officers, 2001), 73-80. 

“Exams and Education: How Provincial Diploma Exams Improve Student Learning.” Fraser Forum, Fall 1999.

“High School Diploma Examinations: Do Students Learn More?  Why?” Policy Notes . July/August 1998, 7-11.

“The New York State Reform Strategy: The Incentive Effects of Minimum Competency Exams” (with Ferran Mane), CEIC Review, Philadelphia, PA: The National Center on Education in Inner Cities, Winter 1999.

“Occupation-Specific versus General Education and Training.”  The Annals.  September 1998, 24-38.

Diplomas for Learning: not Seat Time.  (with Joan Moriarty and Ferran Mane) Educational Finance to Support High Learning Standards. The University of The State of New York and State Education Department, 1998, 56-77.

Comment on “Uncompetitive American Schools: Causes and Cures” by Herb Walberg, Brookings Papers on Education Policy, edited by Diane Ravitch, (Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1998), 206-215

The Impact of Curriculum Based External Exit Exams on Student Achievement, Journal of Economic Education, Vol 29, # 2, Spring 1998, 171-182.

"The Effect of National Standards and Curriculum-Based Exams on Achievement." American Economic Review, Vol 87, no. 2, May 1997, 260-264. [reprinted in Selected Readings on School Reform, Vol. 1, # 1, Spring 1997]

"Is the College Graduate Labor Market Headed for a Bust?--a Critique of Job Requirements Projections." New England Economic Review, May June 1996, 115-135.

"The Impact of Curriculum-Based External Examinations on Learning and Schooling."  International Journal of Educational Research, Vol 23, No. 8, 1996.

"Signalling Incentives and School Organization in France, the Netherlands, Britain and the United States: Lessons for Education Economics."  Incentives and Education Reform  ed. Eric Hanushek, Washington D.C.: National Academy Press, 1996.

"Vocational Training and At-Risk Youth in the United States."  Vocational Training: European Journal, No. 6, Sept-Dec 1995, 34-42.

"Improving Education: How Large are the Benefits?  How can it be done Efficiently?"  APEC Symposium on Performance Measurement Systems, 1996, 299-320.

"Incentives to Study and the Organization of Secondary Instruction"  Assessing Educational Practice: The Contribution of Economics.  eds. Willam Becker and William Baumol,  Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1996.

"Signalling the Competencies of High School Students to Employers."  Linking School to Work: Roles for Standards and Assessment, edited by Lauren Resnick, John Wirt and Davis Jenkins, Jossey-Bass, 1996.

"The Power of External Standards."  American Educator, Fall 1995, 10-18, 42-43.

"In Search of a Niche."  Vocational Education Journal, October, 1995, 38-54.

"School Organization and Incentives to Learn in France, the Netherlands, Britain and the United States: Lessons for Sweden?" The Status of Swedish Education.  ed. Anders Bjorklund. Stockholm, Sweden: The Economic Council of Sweden, 1994.

"Overeducation."  International Encyclopedia of Education. 2nd edition, eds. Thorsten Husen and Henry Levin, Pergamon Press, 1994.

"Schooling, Learning and Worker Productivity"  Human Capital Creation in an Economic Perspective, edited by Rita Asplund, Elinkeinoelaman Tutkimuslaitos Naringslivets Forskningsinstitut (ETLA), (Helsinki, Finland: Physica-Verlag 1995) 13-67,.

"Student, Staff and Employer Incentives for Improved Student Achievement and Work Readiness,"  American Issues for School or Workplace, Washington, D.C.: Council of Chief State School Officers, 1995, 79-110.

"Is a Skills Shortage Coming?  A Review of BLS Occupational Projections," Workforce, Spring 1992.

"Workforce Preparedness."  Research Frontiers in Industrial Relations and Human Resources.  edited by David Lewin, Olivia Mitchell & Peter Scherer, Industrial Relations Research Association, 1992.

"How Accurate are Recent BLS Occupational Projections?" (with Shani Carter) Monthly Labor Review, Oct, 1991.

"The Impact of Academic Competencies on Wages, Unemployment and Job Performance."Carnegie/Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, edited by Alan Meltzer and Charles Plosser, Amsterdam: North Holland. Vol. 37. Dec. 1992, 127-195.

"The Growing Shortage of College Graduate Workers," (with Shani Carter), Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Vol 13, No. 3, Fall 1991, 221-255.

"Why Incentives to learn are Needed in the US."  Educational Leadership, March 1992.

"Academic Learning and National Productivity,"  The Labor Market, The Work Force and Productivity, ed. Eskil Wadensjo, Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish Institute of Social Research, 1992.

"What's Wrong with American High Schools?  Can State Governments Fix It?"  The Economic Consequences of American Education, eds. Richard Aronson and Robert Thornton, New York: JAI Press, 1994, 37-86.

"Incentives to Study: Why American High School Students Compare so Poorly to their Counterparts Overseas" Research in Labor Economics, Vol. 11, edited by David Crawford and Lauri Bassi, Greenwich, Ct.: JAI Press, 1990, 17-51.

"Achievement, Test Scores and Relative Wages"  Workers and Their Wages, edited by Marvin Kosters, Washington, DC: The AEI Press, 1991, 146-181.

"Is the Test Score Decline Responsible for the Productivity Growth Decline?"  American Economic Review, Mar 1989, 178-197.

"Scientific Illiteracy: Causes, Costs and Cures."  This Year in School Science, edited by Audrey Champagne, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1989, 41-87.

"Vocational and Academic Education in High School: Complements or Substitutes"  (with Suk Kang) The Economics of Education Review. Vol. 8, No 2, 1989,  pp. 133-148.

"Why Students Don't Study. How You Can Make Studying Pay Off for Them"  NASSP Bulletin, November 1989, Washington D.C.: National Association of Secondary School Principals, pp. 27-38.

"Productivity Consequences of What is Learned in High School,"  Journal of Curriculum Studies, 1990, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 101-126.

"The Motivation Problem in American High Schools"  Working Together, California Institute on Human Services.

"Making Vocational Education More Effective for At-Risk Youth"  Vocational Education Journal, May 1989.

"Why the Apathy in American High Schools ?"  Educational Researcher. Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan/Feb 1989, 6-10.

"How Can Vocational Education be Made More Effective For At-Risk Youth?" Working Together, Spring 1989, California Institute on Human Services.

"Docility and Apathy: Its Cause and Cure"   Education Reform: Social Change or Political Rhetoric, edited by Samuel Bacharach (Allyn Bacon, New York, 1990).

"Vocational Education for At Risk Youth: How Can It Be Made More Effective?"   School to Work Transition Services for Disadvantaged Youth, Vol. 2, (National Assessment of Vocational Education, United States Department of Education, 1988). [abstracted in Interchange, National Center for Research in Vocational Education, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Jan 1989]

"Occupational Training in High School: When does it Pay Off?"  Economics of Education Review, 8-1, 1989, pp. 1-15.

"Academic Skills and Occupational Training" in Design Papers for the National Assessment of Vocational Education (National Assessment of Vocational Education, United States Department of Education, Washington, D.C., 1987)

"Occupationally Specific Training in High School" in Re-Visioning Vocational Education in the Secondary School, edited by George Copa, Jane Okugak and Marilyn A. Johnson.  (Minnesota Research and Development Center for Vocational Education, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minn. 1986)

The Employer's Choice:  In School Preparation for Employment.  (The National Center for Research in Vocational Education.  Columbus, Ohio, 1986).

Preparing Youth for Employment.  (The National Center for Research in Vocational Education.  Columbus, Ohio, 1985).

"The Effect of Curriculum on Labor Market Success Immediately After High School" (with Suk Kang) Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, Spring, 1986

"Queuing for Union Jobs and the Social Return to Schooling."  In Research in Labor Economics, edited by Ronald Ehrenberg.  (Greenwich, CT:  JAI Press, 1978).  Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Paper 360-76.

"The Effects of Public Policies on the Demand for Higher Education."  Journal of Human Resources.  Summer 1977.  Institute for Research on Poverty Reprint #255.

"Can Adults be Hooked on College?  Some Determinants of Adult College Attendance," (with Jane Van Dyk).  Journal of Higher Education.  January/February 1977. 

"Problems in Measuring Earnings for Benefit Cost Analysis of Human Investment Programs."  Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Social Statistics Section, 1976.

"Subsidizing Science Through Graduate Education."  Society, January/February 1976.

"Some Thoughts on the Cost Effectiveness of Graduate Education" in Graduate Education:  Manpower and Costs, edited by Hugh Folk.  (Urbana:  Graduate College of the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1974), pp. 179-217.

                                                   Employer Behavior and Personnel

"What do We Know about Employer Training."  Research in Labor Economics, edited by Sol Polachek, Vol 16, 1997 New York: JAI Press, 19-88.

"Improving Job-Worker Matching in the Labor Market: What is the Role of the Employment Service?" Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: Microeconomics. 1993, Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.

"Underinvestment in Training: Is a Mandate to Spend on Training the Answer?"  Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol. 4, no. 4, Fall 1993,  Jossey-Bass.

"The French Mandate to Spend on Training: Is It Appropriate for the United States?"  Proceedings of the Industrial Relations Research Association, Madison, Wisc: Industrial Relations Research Association, 1993.

"Do Most Employers and Workers Under Invest in Training  and Learning On-the-Job?"  What Makes Workers Learn: The Role of Incentives in Workplace Education and Training. eds Donald Hirsch and Daniel Wagner,  New York: Hampton Press, 1993

"The Impact of Previous Training in Schools and on Jobs on Productivity, Required OJT, and Turnover of New Hires,"  Private Sector and Skill Formation: International Comparisons, edited by Lisa Lynch, National Bureau of Economic Research, Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1994.

"Job Performance, Turnover and Wage Growth"  Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 8, no. 3, July 1990, 363-386.

"Underinvestment in On-the-Job Training?"  Investing in Human Resources, RVE National Council for Adult Education, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1991.

"The Recognition and Reward of Employee Performance" Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 5, # 4, pt.2, October, 1987, S36-56.

"On-the-Job Training of New Hires,"  Market Failure in Training, ed. David Stern and Josef Ritzen, NY, Springer Verlag, 1991.

"Employment Testing and Incentives to Learn"  Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 33, No. 3, Dec. 1988, pp. 404-423.

"Extensive Search, Intensive Search, and Hiring Costs:  New Evidence on Employers' Hiring Activity" (with John M. Barron).  Economic Inquiry, July 1985 p. 303-382.

  "Employer Search:  The Interviewing and Hiring of New Employees" (with John M. Barron and William C. Dunkelberg).  Review of Economics and Statistics, February 1985.

"Stockpiling Job Applicants" (with John M. Barron).  Proceedings of the Industrial Relations Research Association, Edited by Barbara Dennis (Madison, WI:  Industrial Relations Research Association, 1984).

Hiring and Training Workers (with John Barron and Suk Kang).  The National Center for Research in Vocational Education, Columbus, Ohio, 1984.

Recruiting Workers (with John Barron and Kevin Hollenbeck).  (The National Center for Research in Vocational Education, Columbus, Ohio, 1983).